e-book: Engines of Creation

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ENGINES of CREATION | Chapter 12: Strategies and Survival

February 21, 2001
Author:
K. Eric Drexler

He that will not apply new remedies must expect new evils; for time is the greatest innovator.
- FRANCIS BACON

IN EARLIER CHAPTERS I have stuck close to the firm ground of technological possibility. Here, however, I must venture further into the realm of politics and human action. This ground is softer, but technological facts and evolutionary principles still provide firm points on which to stand and survey the territory.

ENGINES of CREATION | Chapter 11: The Engines of Destruction

February 21, 2001
Author:
K. Eric Drexler

Nor do I doubt if the most formidable armies ever heere upon earth is a sort of soldiers who for their smallness are not visible.
- Sir WILLIAM PERRY, on microbes, 1640

REPLICATING assemblers and thinking machines pose basic threats to people and to life on Earth. Today’s organisms have abilities far from the limits of the possible, and our machines are evolving faster than we are. Within a few decades they seem likely to surpass us. Unless we learn to live with them in safety, our future will likely be both exciting and short. We cannot hope to foresee all the problems ahead, yet by paying attention to the big, basic issues, we can perhaps foresee the greatest challenges and get some idea of how to deal with them.

ENGINES of CREATION | Chapter 10: The Limits to Growth

February 21, 2001
Author:
K. Eric Drexler

The chess board is the world, the pieces are the phenomena of the universe, the rules of the game are what we call the laws of nature.
- T. H. HUXLEY

IN THE LAST CENTURY we have developed aircraft, spacecraft, nuclear power, and computers. In the next we will develop assemblers, replicators, automated engineering, cheap spaceflight, cell repair machines, and much more. This series of breakthroughs may suggest that the technology race will advance without limit. In this view, we will break through all conceivable barriers, rushing off into the infinite unknown – but this view seems false.

ENGINES of CREATION | Acknowledgements

February 21, 2001
Author:
K. Eric Drexler

The ideas in this book have been shaped by many minds. All authors bear an incalculable debt to earlier writers and thinkers, and the Notes and References section provides a partial acknowledgment of my debt. But other people have had a more immediate influence by reading and criticizing all or part of the several papers, articles, and draft manuscripts ancestral to the present version of this book. Their contributions have ranged from brief letters to extensive, detailed criticisms, suggestions, and revisions; they deserve much of the credit for the evolution of the manuscript toward its present form and content. I do, however, claim all blame for its remaining failings.  

ENGINES of CREATION | Notes and References

February 21, 2001
Author:
K. Eric Drexler

References for Chapter 1

… Engines of Construction* … The ideas in this chapter rest on technical arguments presented in my paper “Molecular Engineering: An Approach to the Development of General Capabilities for Molecular Manipulation” (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), Vol. 78, pp. 5275-78, 1981), which presents a case for the feasibility of designing protein molecules and developing general-purpose systems for directing molecular assembly.

ENGINES of CREATION | Chapter 7: Engines of Healing

February 21, 2001
Author:
K. Eric Drexler

One of the things which distinguishes ours from all earlier generations is this, that we have seen our atoms.
- KARL K. DARROW, The Renaissance of Physics

WE WILL USE molecular technology to bring health because the human body is made of molecules. The ill, the old, and the injured all suffer from mis-arranged patterns of atoms, whether mis-arranged by invading viruses, passing time, or swerving cars. Devices able to rearrange atoms will be able to set them right. Nanotechnology will bring a fundamental breakthrough in medicine.

ENGINES of CREATION | Afterword

February 21, 2001
Author:
K. Eric Drexler

Afterword, 1985

IN THE FIELDS I have described, the pace of events is swift. Within the last month or so, a number of developments have occurred or come to my attention:

 Several groups are now working on protein design, and the newly founded Center for Advanced Research in Biotechnology plans to support such efforts. A group at the National Bureau of Standards has combined two molecular-simulation techniques in a way crucial to designing assemblers. Advances have also been made in the use of computers to plan molecular synthesis.

ENGINES of CREATION | Chapter 6: The World Beyond Earth

February 21, 2001
Author:
K. Eric Drexler

That inverted Bowl we call The Sky; Whereunder crawling coop’d we live and die.
The Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyam

THE EARTH is but a small part of the world, and the rest of the world will be important to our future. In terms of energy, materials, and room for growth, space is almost everything. In the past, successes in space have regularly fulfilled engineering projections. In the future, an open space frontier will widen the human world. Advances in AI and nanotechnology will play a crucial role.  

ENGINES of CREATION | Glossary

February 21, 2001
Author:
K. Eric Drexler

This glossary contains terms used in describing matters related to advanced technology. It was compiled by the MIT Nanotechnology Study Group, with special help from David Darrow of Indiana University.

ENGINES of CREATION | Chapter 5: Thinking Machines

February 21, 2001
Author:
K. Eric Drexler

The world stands on the threshold of a second computer age. New technology now moving out of the laboratory is starting to change the computer from a fantastically fast calculating machine to a device that mimics human thought processes – giving machines the capability to reason, make judgments, and even learn. Already this artificial intelligence is performing tasks once thought to require human intelligence…
- BUSINESS WEEK

COMPUTERS have emerged from back rooms and laboratories to help with writing, calculating, and play in homes and offices. These machines do simple, repetitive tasks, but machines still in the laboratory do much more. Artificial intelligence researchers say that computers can be made smart, and fewer and fewer people disagree. To understand our future, we must see whether artificial intelligence is as impossible as flying to the Moon.

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