Electronic readout of quantum bits for spintronics and quantum computing
August 20, 2012
Researchers from KIT with partners from Grenoble and Strasbourg have read out the quantum state of an atom directly by using electrodes.
“Normally, every contact with the outer world changes information in a quantum mechanical system in a completely uncontrolled manner,” explains Professor Mario Ruben from Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. “We therefore have to keep the quantum state stable and shielded. On the other hand, information has to be read out in a controlled manner for further use.”
Magnetic molecule complexes may be a solution of this dilemma. In their center, a metal atom with a pronounced magnetic moment, a spin, is located. It is surrounded by organic molecules that shield the atom. “When synthesizing this protective enclosure, we can exactly define how much the metal atom sees of the outer world,” explains Ruben.
The study is based on the metal atom terbium, using an enclosure of about 100 carbon, nitrogen, and water atoms and placed in the center of nanometer-sized, electric gold contacts. The electrodes had an effect similar to the three channels of a transistor. Electric voltage of the middle gate electrode influenced the current through the other two electrodes.
In this way, the working point was set. The molecule was then exposed to various changing magnetic fields and the jump of the spin was reflected by the amplitude of the current curve. “By measuring current flow, we found that the nuclear spin of the metal atom is stable for up to 20 seconds,” says Ruben. “For quantum mechanical processes, this is a very long time.”
Ruben suggests that the results will be of particular importance to spintronics and quantum computing. Spintronics uses the magnetic spin of single particles for information processing. Quantum computers use quantum mechanical effects, such as the entanglement and super-position of spins, for the parallel execution of algorithms at high speed.