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Graphene photodetector speeds up light-to-electricity conversion

May result in faster data transmission and broadband photodetectors
April 15, 2015

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Researchers at MIT, UC Riverside, and ICFO have demonstrated a graphene-based photodetector that converts absorbed light into an electrical voltage in an extremely short time*.

The finding opens up a new path to ultra-fast optoelectronic (light to electricity and vice versa) conversion, which is essential for faster data transmission, and to photodetectors that operate over a broad range of frequencies.

To demonstrate… read more

How to use patent-award data to forecast technological change

Fastest-developing technologies include optical and wireless communications, 3-D printing, and MRI technology
April 15, 2015

(credit:  Christopher L. Benson, Christopher L. Magee/PLoS ONE)

MIT engineers have devised a formula for estimating how fast a technology is advancing, based on information gleaned from relevant patents.

The researchers determined the improvement rates of 28 different technologies, including solar photovoltaics, 3D printing, fuel-cell technology, and genome sequencing.

They searched through the U.S. Patent Office database for patents associated with each domain — more than 500,000 total — by developing a novel method to quickly… read more

A video camera that powers itself

Could lead to a future self-powered digital watch with camera?
April 15, 2015

The complete self-powered camera system with sensor array powered by supercapacitor recharged using just energy harvested from pixels (credit: Columbia University)

A prototype self-powered video camera that can produce an image every second of a well-lit indoor scene has been invented by a research team led by Shree K. Nayar, T.C. Chang Professor of Computer Science at Columbia Engineering.

“We are in the middle of a digital imaging revolution,” says Nayar, who directs the Computer Vision Laboratory at Columbia Engineering. “A camera that can function as… read more

‘Spin-orbitronics’ could ‘revolutionize the electronics industry’ by manipulating magnetic domains

April 14, 2015

magnetic-domain switching ft.

Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) have found a new way of manipulating the walls that define magnetic domains (uniform areas in magnetic materials) and the results could one day revolutionize the electronics industry, they say.

Gong Chen and Andreas Schmid, experts in electron microscopy with Berkeley Lab’s Materials Sciences Division, led the… read more

How to make objects invisible without metamaterial cloaking

April 14, 2015

This is the radio-frequency anechoic chamber used for the experiment (credit: ITMO University)

Physicists from ITMO University, Ioffe Institute and Australian National University have managed to make homogenous cylindrical objects completely invisible in the microwave range — without adding coating layers.

KurzweilAI has covered a wide variety of discoveries in metamaterals (“cloaking”); this method is based on a new understanding of electromagnetic wave scattering. The results of the open-access study were published… read more

Metamaterials that harvest energy almost perfectly from electromagnetic waves

Could help ease the world’s energy shortage in the future
April 14, 2015

The metasurface used for collecting electromagnetic energy. (credit: O.Ramahi/U.Waterloo)

Researchers from the University of Waterloo in Canada have developed a novel design for electromagnetic energy harvesting, using metamaterials.

The metamaterials that can be designed so that they don’t reflect or re-transmit power  — enabling almost full absorption of incident waves at a specific range of frequencies and polarizations.

Metasurface-based antennas

KurzweilAI has reported a variety of schemes for harvesting electromagnetic… read more

Smartphone-based device could provide rapid, low-cost molecular tumor diagnosis

April 14, 2015

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A smartphone-based device developed by Harvard Medical School investigators at Massachusetts General Hospital could bring rapid, accurate molecular diagnosis of cancer and other diseases to locations lacking the latest medical technology.

The device uses technology for making holograms to collect detailed microscopic images for digital analysis of the molecular composition of cells and tissues.

“The global burden of cancer, limited access to prompt pathology… read more

Short probabilistic programming machine-learning code replaces complex programs for computer-vision tasks

April 13, 2015

Two-dimensional images of human faces (top row) and front views of three-dimensional models of the same faces, produced by both a new MIT system (middle row) and one of its predecessors (bottom row). (credit: Courtesy of the researchers)

Probabilistic programming does in 50 lines of code what used to take thousands

On some standard computer-vision tasks, short programs — less than 50 lines long — written in a probabilistic programming language are competitive with conventional systems with thousands of lines of code, MIT researchers have found.

Most recent advances in artificial intelligence — such as mobile apps that convert speech to text… read more

Robust ‘spider silk’ matrix guides cardiac tissue regeneration

April 13, 2015

Heart tissue cells matrix ft

Genetically engineered fibers of the protein spidroin — the construction material for spider webs — are a ideal matrix (substrate or frame) for cultivating heart tissue cells, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT) researchers have found, as noted in an open-access article in the journal PLOS ONE.

Regenerative methods can solve the problem of transplant rejection, but it’s a challenge to find a… read more

‘Training’ carbon-nanotube composites in ‘unconventional’ computing

April 10, 2015

As the liquid crystals align in electric fields, it helps to align the nanotubes — changing the electrical structure of the materials. You can see the thermal output from the material during this “training” process. Bright colors represent localized heating within the material, which the group suspects is due to the formation of new conductive pathways as the material changes or evolves. (Credit: Mark K. Massey/Journal of Applied Physics)

Researchers from Durham University and the University of São Paulo-USP have  developed a method of using single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) composites in “unconventional” computing.

By studying the mechanical and electrical properties of the materials, they discovered a correlation between SWCNT concentration/viscosity/conductivity and the computational capability of the composite.

“Instead of creating circuits from arrays of discrete components (transistors in digital electronics), our work takes a… read more

Understanding how complex carbon nanostructures form

Promises better control over carbon nanotube properties, such as stiff (for wires) or soft (for wearables)
April 10, 2015

A numerically simulated CNT forest (credit: Matt Maschmann)

A University of Missouri researcher has developed a way to predict how complicated carbon nanotube (CNT) structures (called “forests”) are formed when “grown” in a high-temperature furnace.

This understanding promises to enable designers and engineers to better incorporate the appropriate form of this highly adaptable material into devices and products such as aerospace wiring, combat body armor, computer logic components, and micro sensors used in biomedical… read more

Graphene promising for future high-efficiency spintronic processors

Could graphene as a conductor outperform semiconductors in efficiency?
April 10, 2015

In graphene, electrons keep their magnetization, their spin (the pink arrows in the picture) much longer than they do in ordinary conductors such as copper and aluminum. This characteristic of graphene may enable spintronics to become a complement to traditional electronics, which only utilizes one of the electron´s degrees of freedom, namely their charge. (credit: M Venkata Kamalakar et al/Nature Communications)

Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology have discovered that large-area graphene, created by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), can preserve electron spin over an extended period of time and communicate it over greater distances than previously known. This opens the door to use spintronics — normally used only to store data — to achieve energy-efficient processors and memory.

There’s been a lot of recent research on creating versions of… read more

Next-generation supercomputer will have 180 petaflop/s peak performance

April 9, 2015

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The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has invested $200 million to deliver a next-generation supercomputer, known as Aurora, with a peak performance of 180 petaflop/s (quadrillions of calculations per second).

Scheduled for completion in 2018, Aurora will be based on a next-generation Cray supercomputer, code-named “Shasta,” and will use Intel’s HPC scalable system framework. The  supercomputer will be open to all scientific users.

The current fastest supercomputer is… read more

An artificial hand that can respond sensitively thanks to ‘muscles’ made of shape-memory wires

April 9, 2015

Artificial hand able to respond sensitively thanks to muscles made from smart metal wires (credit: Filomena Simone et al.)

Engineers at Saarland University have created an artificial hand with muscles made from of nickel-titanium alloy shape-memory wire (the wire is able to “remember” its shape and to return to that original shape after it has been deformed).

The new technology allows for fabricating flexible, lightweight robot hands for industrial applications and novel prosthetic devices. The muscle fibers are composed of bundles of ultrafine nickel-titanium alloy wires that are… read more

Robots and prostheses learn human touch

The emerging science of "artificial haptic intelligence"
April 9, 2015

Touch-sensitive robotic hand (Credit: Science Nation)

Research engineers and students in the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Biomechatronics Lab are designing artificial limbs that are more touch-sensitive.

The team, led by mechanical engineer Veronica J. Santos, is constructing a language of touch and quantifying it with mechanical touch sensors that interact with objects of various shapes, sizes. and textures.

Using an array of instrumentation, Santos’ team is able to translate that interaction into… read more

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