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Ultra-low-energy-consuming transistors and circuits

September 29, 2014

Energy-efficient tunnel FET switches and circuits (credit: E2 SWITCH)

European project E2SWITCH is developing new electronic systems with ultra-low energy consumption, based on tunnel FET (TFET) heterostructures for switches (transistors) and circuits.

The idea is to design that will be built on silicon substrates but designed to operate at voltages that are up to five times lower than those used in mobile phones, while reducing thermal dissipation.

Transistors and circuits based on lower voltages result… read more

‘Tumor Paint’ brain-tumor-detecting dye gets go-ahead for clinical study

Identifies tumor cells so surgeons don’t remove too little, leaving disease behind --- or too much, removing healthy tissue
September 28, 2014

Tumor paint ft.

The FDA has approved an investigational new drug application for Tumor Paint BLZ-100, a protein-linked dye that highlights cancer cells in images so surgeons can precisely target brain tumors.

The FDA move means Blaze Bioscience can proceed with a clinical trial in Los Angeles, Queensland, Australia and other sites.

Twenty-one adult patients who need surgery for often-deadly glioma brain tumors are expected to enroll in the study, which… read more

Climate-Earth system computer model to be the most advanced ever created, says DOE

Armed with high-performance computing systems, DOE national labs and partners tackle climate and Earth-system modeling
September 26, 2014

Computer modeling provides policymakers with essential information on such data as global sea surface temperatures related to specific currents.

The U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories are teaming up with academia and the private sector to develop what they call the most advanced climate and Earth system computer model yet, and investigate key fundamental science questions, such as the interaction of clouds and climate and the role of secondary organic aerosols.

The project could help address concerns by some that the 55 existing global climate models… read more

Bots on the ground

Robot generators on wheels could power emergency and military operations
September 26, 2014

bots

Michigan Technological University engineers have developed a tabletop model of a robot team that can bring power to emergency workers, starting with cell towers to restore communications.

“If we can regain power in communication towers, then we can find the people we need to rescue,” says Nina Mahmoudian, an assistant professor of mechanical engineering–engineering mechanics. “And the human rescuers can communicate with each other.”

The team has programmed… read more

‘Active clothing’ for soft robots

Now anything can be a soft robot with sensory skin
September 26, 2014

Sensor threads composed of eGaIn-filled hyperelastic silicone tubing, attached to fabric via couching and wrapped around a foam block (Michelle Yuen et al.)

Purdue University researchers are developing a robotic fabric that moves and contracts and is embedded with sensors, an approach that could bring “active clothing” and a new class of soft robots.

Such an elastic technology could make possible robots that have sensory skin, stretchable robotic garments that people might wear for added strength and endurance, “g-suits” for pilots or astronauts to counteract the effects of acceleration, and… read more

A chip that can simulate a tumor’s ‘microenvironment’

Could test the effectiveness of nanoparticles and drugs that target cancer
September 25, 2014

This illustration shows the design of a new chip capable of simulating a tumor's "microenvironment" to test the effectiveness of nanoparticles and drugs that target cancer. The new system, called a tumor-microenvironment-on-chip device, will allow researchers to study the complex environment surrounding tumors and the barriers that prevent the targeted delivery of therapeutic agents.  (Credit: Purdue University photo/Altug Ozcelikkale, Bumsoo Han)

Purdue University researchers have developed a chip capable of simulating a tumor’s “microenvironment” to test the effectiveness of nanoparticles and drugs that target cancer.

The new tumor-microenvironment-on-chip (T-MOC) will allow researchers to study the complex environment surrounding tumors and the barriers that prevent targeted delivery of therapeutic agents, said Bumsoo Han, a  Purdue associate professor of mechanical engineering.

Researchers are trying to perfect “targeted… read more

Ultra-fast ‘phase-change materials’ could lead to 1,000-times-faster computers

September 25, 2014

Solid (top) to liquid (bottom) transition in Germanium-tin antimony-telluride (Ge–Sb-Te, or GST) alloy model (Ge: blue, Sb: red, Te, yellow) (credit: Desmond Loke et al./PNAS)

Replacing silicon, new ultra-fast “phase-change materials” (PCMs) that could eventually enable processing speeds 500 to 1,000 times faster than the average laptop computer today — while using less energy — have been modeled and tested by researchers from the University of Cambridge, the Singapore A*STAR Data-Storage Institute, and the Singapore University of Technology and Design.

PCMs are capable of reversibly switching between two structural phases with different… read more

New UHF RFID technology helps robots find household objects

Machine plays "hotter/colder” game while searching
September 24, 2014

Researchers equipped a PR2 robot with articulated, directionally sensitive antennas and a new algorithm that allows the robot to successfully find and navigate to objects (credit: Georgia Tech/Travis Deyle)

A new search algorithm that improves a robot’s ability to find and navigate to tagged objects in a room or house has been developed by Charlie Kemp, an associate professor in Georgia Tech’s Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, former Georgia Tech student Travis Deyle, and University of Washington Professor Matthew Reynolds,

The team has implemented their system in a PR2 robot, allowing it to… read more

Soft robotics ‘toolkit’ features everything a budding robot-maker needs

September 24, 2014

(Credit: Eliza Grinnell, Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences)

Several Harvard University labs in collaboration with Trinity College Dublin have developed the Soft Robotics Toolkit — an online treasure trove of downloadable open-source plans, how-to videos, and case studies to assist users in the design, fabrication, modeling, characterization, and control of soft robotic devices.

With the advent of low-cost 3D printing, laser cutters, and other advances in manufacturing technology, soft robotics is emerging as an increasingly… read more

A nanosized, environmentally friendly hydrogen generator

Could produce hydrogen for cars and generators in the future; we meet reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in yet another radical role
September 23, 2014

Depiction of photocatalytic hydrogen evolution using platinum/titanium oxide (Pt/TiO2) interfaced with reduced graphic oxide (rGO) and photosensitive proton pump bacteriorhodopsin (bR) (credit: Peng Wang et al./ACS Nano)

A small-scale “hydrogen generator” that uses light and a two-dimensional graphene platform to boost production of hydrogen has been developed by researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory.

While hydrogen is ubiquitous, it’s typically bonded with other elements, such as oxygen in H2O, where it must be separated to produce free hydrogen. The commercial separation process uses natural gas to react with superheated… read more

Is climate science ‘settled’?

"Rigidly promulgating the idea that climate science is 'settled' (or is a 'hoax') demeans and chills the scientific enterprise."
September 23, 2014

(Credit: iStock)

The claim that “climate science is settled,” which runs through today’s popular and policy discussions, is misguided, says computational physicist Steven E. Koonin*, Director of the Center for Urban Science and Progress at New York University, writing in The Wall Street Journal Friday.

“It has … distorted our public and policy debates on issues related to energy, greenhouse-gas emissions and the environment … and inhibited… read more

Making quantum dots glow brighter

May lead to improved LED moniitors and medical imaging
September 23, 2014

This image shows the experimental set-up researchers used to analyze the behavior of quantum dots placed on metal oxides. A laser illuminated the quantum dots to make them glow and a spectrometer was used to analyze the light they emitted. (Credit: Seyed Sadeghi/ University of Alabama, Huntsville)

Researchers from the University of Alabama in Huntsville and the University of Oklahoma have found a new way to control the properties of quantum dots, those tiny chunks of semiconductor material that glow different colors depending on their size, using ultrathin layers of metal oxides.

Quantum dots, which are so small they start to exhibit atom-like quantum properties, have a wide range of potential applications, from sensors, light-emitting diodes,… read more

Sensing neuronal activity with light

September 23, 2014

Archer1 fluorescence in a cultured rat hippocampal neuron. By monitoring changes in this fluorescence at up to a thousand frames per second, researchers can track the electrical activity of the cell. (Credit: Nicholas Flytzanis, Claire Bedbrook and Viviana Gradinaru/Caltech)

Caltech researchers have developed a new optogenetics material  for mapping brain activity.

Optogenetics uses light to sense or control neurons that have been genetically sensitized to light.

The work — a collaboration between Viviana Gradinaru, assistant professor of biology and biological engineering, and Frances Arnold, the Dick and Barbara Dickinson Professor of Chemical Engineering, Bioengineering and Biochemistry—was described in two separate… read more

On/off switch for aging cells discovered, may hold the key to ‘healthy aging’

Flipping on the telomerase switch to restore telomeres
September 23, 2014

Human chromosomes (gray) capped by telomeres (white) (credit: Wikimedia Commons)

Scientists at the Salk Institute have discovered an on-and-off “switch” in cells that points to a way to encourage healthy cells to keep dividing and generating, for example, new lung or liver tissue — even in old age — and may hold the key to healthy aging.

In our bodies, newly divided cells constantly replenish lungs, skin, liver and other organs. However, most human cells cannot divide… read more

Superlattice transforms graphene into a semiconductor

September 22, 2014

Graphene placed on top of boron nitride to form a superlattice (credit: Berkeley Lab)

Graphene can be transformed into a new superlattice state that converts graphene — normally a metallic conductor — into a semiconductor, MIT and University of Manchester researchers have found.

In a research paper published in Science, the collaboration, led by MIT‘s theory professor Leonid Levitov and Manchester‘s Nobel laureate Sir Andre Geim, reports that they created a superlattice… read more

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