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How to control GMOs with molecular ‘lock and key’

June 18, 2015

benzothiazole-ft

UC Berkeley researchers have developed a low-cost, easy method of biocontainment of bacteria to contain accidental spread of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The used a series of lock-and-key genetic mutations (in addition to the GMO mutations) that render the microbe inactive unless the right molecule (the key) is added to to the expressed protein to enable its viability.

The work appears this week in the journal ACS Syntheticread more

Reducing the heat generated by the billions of transistors in computers

June 17, 2015

Fermi surface and band structure of (Sr1−xLax)3Ir2O7  (Sr1-xLax)3Ir2O7 for x=0.057.  Fermi surface map featuring two electron pockets (red dashed ellipses) around eachMpoint. Brillouin zone boundary for the distorted (undistorted) lattice is marked by white (grey) dashed boxes. (credit: Junfeng He et al./Nature Materials)

An exotic property that could warp the electronic structure of a material to reduce heat buildup and improve performance in ever-smaller computer components has been observed for the first time in X-ray studies with at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) at the Department of Energy’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory.

Heat is an obstacle to packing more computing power into ever-smaller devices; excess heat can cause devices to… read more

World’s thinnest light source made from graphene

Can be integrated into chips, paving the way to atomically thin, flexible, and transparent displays and graphene-based on-chip optical communications
June 17, 2015

Illustration of light emission from electrically biased suspended graphene (credit: Young Duck Kim/Columbia Engineering)

The first on-chip visible light source using graphene as a filament has been developed by a team of scientists from Columbia Engineering, Seoul National University (SNU), and Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS).

The scientists attached small strips of graphene to metal electrodes, suspended the strips above the silicon substrate, and passed a current through the filaments to cause them to heat… read more

Magnetically controlled ‘nanoswimmer’ could deliver drugs via bloodstream

June 17, 2015

Schematic of 3-link nanoswimmer with undulation motion driven by oscillating magnetic field  (credit: Bumjin Jang et al./Nano Letters)

ETH Zurich and Technion researchers have developed an elastic “nanoswimmer” polypyrrole (Ppy) nanowire about 15 micrometers (millionths of a meter) long and 200 nanometers thick that can move through biological fluid environments at almost 15 micrometers per second. To propel the nanowire “tail,” two hinged ferromagnetic nickel sections of the wire undulate, controlled by an oscillating magnetic field, causing the tail to allow also undulate and move forward.

The nanoswimmers… read more

Hemp nanosheets could be better than graphene for making the ideal supercapacitor

June 16, 2015

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As hemp makes a comeback in the U.S. after a decades-long ban on its cultivation, scientists are reporting that fibers from the plant can pack as much energy and power as graphene, long-touted as the model material for supercapacitors, according to David Mitlin, Ph.D.

Supercapacitors are energy storage devices that have huge potential to transform the way future electronics are powered. Unlike today’s rechargeable batteries, which sip up energy… read more

‘Brain-to-Text’ system converts speech brainwave patterns to text

June 16, 2015

Brain activity recorded by electrocorticography electrodes (blue circles). spoken words are then decoded from neural activity patterns in the blue/yellow areas. (credit: CSL/KIT)

German and U.S. researchers have decoded natural continuously spoken speech from brain waves and transformed it into text — a step toward communication with computers or humans by thought alone.

Their “Brain-to-Text” system recorded signals from an electrocorticographic (ECoG)* electrode array located on relevant surfaces of the frontal and temporal lobes of the cerebral cortex of seven epileptic patients, who participated voluntarily in the study during their… read more

Does a black hole create a hologram copy of anything that touches it?

June 16, 2015

Simulated view of a black hole (credit: Alain Riazuelo of the French National Research Agency, via Wikipedia. (http://go.osu.edu/5zX))

According to Samir Mathur. professor of physics at The Ohio State University, the recently proposed idea that black holes have “firewalls” that destroy all they touch is wrong. He believes that a black hole converts anything that touches it into a hologram — a near-perfect copy of itself that continues to exist just as before.

Mathur says he proves that in a open-access paper posted online to theread more

AI program predicts key disease-associated genetic mutations for hundreds of complex diseases

June 15, 2015

A depiction of the double helical structure of DNA. Its four coding units (A, T, C, G) are color-coded in pink, orange, purple and yellow. (credit: NHGRI)

A decade of work at Johns Hopkins has yielded a computer program that predicts, with far more accuracy than current methods, which mutations are likely to have the largest effect on the activity of the “dimmer switches” (which alter the cell’s gene activity) in DNA — suggesting new targets for diagnosis and treatment of many diseases.

A summary of the research was published online today… read more

First full genome of a living organism sequenced and assembled using smartphone-size device

June 15, 2015

MinION MkI device for portable, real time biological analyses (credit: Oxford Nanopore)

Researchers in Canada and the U.K. have sequenced and assembled de novo (from the ground up) the full genome of a living organism, the bacteria Escherichia Coli, using Oxford Nanopore’s MinION device, a genome sequencer that can fit in the palm of your hand.

The findings, published today in the journal Nature Methods, provide proof of concept for the new genome sequencer technology.

The researchers expect to use… read more

First glimpse of new concepts developing in the brain

June 12, 2015

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Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) scientists have for the first time documented the actual formation of newly learned concepts inside the brain.

Thanks to recent advances in brain imaging technology at CMU and elsewhere, it is now known how specific concrete objects are coded in the brain — neuroscientists can identify which object, such as a house or a banana, someone is thinking about from its… read more

A 3-D human ‘organoid’ brain in a dish

Growing a miniature brain from cell scrapings could help diagnose brain disorders in the future, Gattaca-style
June 12, 2015

Neurons and supporting cells in the spheroids form layers and organize themselves according to the architecture of the developing human brain and network with each other. (credit: Sergiu Pasca, M.D., Stanford University)

Sergiu Pasca, M.D., of Stanford University and colleagues have developed “human cortical spheroids” — miniature cultured 3-D structures that grow and function much like the cortex of the brain of the person from whom they were derived.

These “organoids” (3-D complexes of cells that function like an organ) buzz with neuronal network activity. Cells talk with each other in circuits, much as they do in our brains.… read more

Researchers demonstrate ‘no-ink’ color printing with nanomaterials

June 11, 2015

Missouri S&T researchers have developed a method to accurately print high-resolution images on nanoscale materials. To demonstrate the process, they printed the Missouri S&T athletic logo (left) at the nanoscale level (right; scale bar: 10 micrometers) (credit: Missouri University of Science and Technology)

Researchers at Missouri University of Science and Technology have developed a “no-ink” color printing process using nanomaterials, with features visible only with the aid of a high-powered electron microscope.

The researchers describe their  printing method in an open-access article in the latest issue of Nature Publishing Group’s Scientific Reports  and illustrate their technique by reproducing the Missouri S&T athletic logo on a nanometer-scale surface.… read more

Low-cost, ‘tunable’ window tintings

June 11, 2015

Window tinting can turn milky for privacy while still allowing 90 percent or more of sunlight to enter. (credit: Courtesy of Tim Zarki, University of Cincinnati)

University of Cincinnati and university and industry partners have developed a technology for tunable window tinting that dynamically adapts for brightness, color temperatures (such as blueish or yellowish light), and opacity (to provide for privacy while allowing 90 percent or more of the light in), adjustable by the user.

According to the researchers, these “smart windows” are would be simple to manufacture, making them affordable for business… read more

First working synthetic immune organ with controllable antibodies

Promises to lead to better understanding of the immune system, develop new therapies, improve testing of new classes of drugs and toxic chemicals
June 11, 2015

When exposed to a foreign agent, such as an immunogenic protein, B cells in lymphoid organs undergo germinal center reactions. The image on the left is an immunized mouse spleen with activated B cells (brown) that produce antibodies. At right, top: a scanning electron micrograph of porous synthetic immune organs that enable rapid proliferation and activation of B cells into antibody-producing cells. At right, bottom: primary B cell viability and distribution is visible 24 hours following encapsulation procedure. (credit: Singh Lab)

Cornell University engineers have created a functional, synthetic immune organoid (a lab-grown ball of cells with some of the features of a normal organ) that produces antibodies. The engineered organ has implications for everything from rapid production of immune therapies to new frontiers in cancer or infectious disease research.

The first-of-its-kind immune organoid was created in the lab of Ankur Singh, assistant professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering, who applies… read more

IBM researchers develop new technique for integrating ‘III-V’ materials onto silicon wafers

A breakthrough that may allow for an extension to Moore's Law
June 10, 2015

semiconductor integration-ft

A team of IBM researchers in Zurich, Switzerland with support from colleagues in Yorktown Heights, New York has developed a relatively simple, robust and versatile process for growing crystals made from compound semiconductor materials. The new method will allow the materials to be integrated onto silicon wafers — an important step toward making future computer chips that will allow integrated circuits to continue shrinking in size and cost,… read more

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