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New Theory on Enzyme Catalysis

October 8, 2004

University of Leicester scientists’ research supports a theory that enzymes use quantum-mechanical effects such as tunnelling to facilitate passage of a reaction through, rather than over, an energy barrier.

The discovery has wide-ranging implications for the use of enzymes in industry and biomedical research, since the new theory is likely to underpin the mode of action of all enzymes, the scientists believe. “For example, the new discovery questions current… read more

AI Software Enables Satellite Self-Repair

October 8, 2004

NASA scientists recently successfully radioed AI software to a satellite and tested the software’s ability to find and analyze errors in the spacecraft’s systems.

The AI software, Livingstone Version 2 (LV2), automatically detects and diagnoses simulated failures in the NASA Earth Observing One satellite’s instruments and systems. LV2 monitors the satellite’s software, which autonomously runs the satellite’s imaging systems. If the satellite does not respond properly to its software’s… read more

Device Translates Spoken Japanese and English

October 8, 2004

A handheld device that enables a user to chat in another language — without having to learn any words or phrases — has been developed by NEC.

It consists of a speech recognition engine, translation software and a voice generator. Spoken English or Japanese is recognized and converted into text by the speech-recognition engine. The text is then converted from Japanese to English (or the other way) by translation… read more

Cancer Nanotechnology Research Center Funded

October 8, 2004

The NIH has awarded two universities grants totaling nearly $10 million to establish a multidisciplinary research program in cancer nanotechnology and develop a new class of nanoparticles for molecular and cellular imaging.

One grant will establish a multidisciplinary Bioengineering Research Partnership for scientists from Emory University and the Georgia Institute of Technology. The other grant will be used to develop advanced nanoparticle quantum dot probes for molecular and cellular… read more

Next Step to the Quantum Computer

October 7, 2004

University of Bonn physicists have set up a quantum register experimentally, an important step towards processing quantum information with neutral atoms.

The physicists loaded five decelerated cesium atoms onto a laser beam. With the aid of an additional laser, they then initialized the quantum register, i.e. they “wrote” zeros on all the qubits. They then were able to store the quantum information desired in each qubit by using microwave… read more

Science of Cell Protein Destruction Wins Nobel

October 7, 2004

Discoveries concerning the controlled process of cell protein degradation have earned three scientists the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 2004.

While work on understanding how proteins are made has received lots of attention, work on understanding how proteins are degraded has been less publicized. But it is now known that when the process goes wrong, it can result in cancer, cystic fibrosis and brain degenerative conditions such as Parkinson’s… read more

Foresight Institute Conference Tackles Nanotechnology Applications And Public Policy

October 7, 2004

The Foresight Institute announced today that its 1st Conference on Advanced Nanotechnology: Research, Applications, and Policy, October 22-24 in the Washington, DC area, will focus on what molecular nanotechnology means for national security, the environment, water purification, clean energy, medicine, space exploration, international competitiveness, zero-waste manufacturing, and societal impacts.

“We have assembled over 30 nanotechnology experts, researchers, and leaders who will present their work on important applications… read more

Visual Brain Areas Assist Inflamed Optic Nerves

October 6, 2004

Researchers using functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain found that visual areas of the cortex could adapt to altered input coming from an inflamed optic nerve.

Areas of the brain normally associated with more specialized higher visual processing reorganized themselves in response to the faulty visual information transmitted by the nerve. The techniques used in this study could also be applied to other conditions such as stroke in… read more

Extending the Physical Limits of Magnetic Data Storage

October 6, 2004

University of Houston engineers are developing a method to improve magnetic data storage density by producing the first nanopatterned medium recording (N-PMR) at the scale of one terabyte per square inch, with a goal of recording on individual crystallites.

Currently, magnetic storage uses 50 to 100 crystallites for a storage unit. With the new method, each crystallite would be located in a specific, lithographically defined place so that individual… read more

Science of smell scoops Nobel Prize

October 5, 2004

Explaining how the human sense of smell works has earned two American scientists the Nobel Prize in Medicine.

Richard Axel of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute at Columbia University and Linda Buck of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center have helped piece together every step in the process by which cells in the nose capture smelly compounds and transmit signals to the brain, which are perceived as distinct aromas.… read more

Monitoring Heat Flow at a Molecular Scale

October 5, 2004

University of Illinois and University of Scranton researchers used an ultrafast laser spectrometer to monitor heat flow through a system at a molecular scale.

The researchers found that the rate of heat flow depended on the shape, and resulting vibrational couplings, of the molecules in a system. These results could help improve nanoscale device design by allowing heat flows within a device to be predicted based on molecular interactions.… read more

Researchers Manipulate Cell Recognition Mechanism

October 5, 2004

Georgia Institute of Technology researchers have developed a technique to change the type of molecule that activates a cell’s nuclear receptors, where the activated receptor in turn initiates gene expression.

With this technique, cells could be programmed to signal the presence of specific molecules in their environment. These modified cells could be used in sensor arrays, gene therapy for cancer or as research tools.

Georgia Instituteread more

Robotic Capsule to Crawl Through Intestines

October 5, 2004

Researchers have developed a prototype robotic capsule designed to crawl though a patient’s stomach, enabling doctors to view and even treat an internal ailment remotely.

Current endoscopies require a patient to swallow a capsule equipped with a camera that transmits images back outside the body. The prototype capsule has legs, made of a shape memory alloy, that can move the capsule across intestinal tissues without damaging the tissue.… read more

Mechanical Memory Switch Outstrips Chip Technology

October 4, 2004

Boston University researchers have built mechanical memory switches that vibrate at 24 megahertz and use only femtowatts to change between states, allowing faster and more efficient storage than conventional electronic or magneto-electronic storage.

The switches, built with electron-beam lithography, are also resilient in electrical and magnetic fields.

Boston University news release

Drugs Delivered By Robots in the Blood

October 4, 2004

A microscopic swimming robot unveiled by Chinese scientists could eventually be used for drug delivery or to clear arteries in humans.

The 3 mm by 2 mm by 0.4 mm triangular machine is propelled using an external magnetic field that controls its microscopic fins: the speed of the craft can be changed by altering the resonant frequency of the magnetic field.

The next model of the robot will… read more

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