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Most likely host star for advanced life named

February 20, 2006

Beta CVn, a binary star roughly 26 light-years away that resembles our own Sun, and epsilon Indi A are on a list of likely life-bearing systems compiled by Margaret Turnbull, at the Carnegie Institution of Washington.

A lost interview with ENIAC co-inventor J. Presper Eckert

February 17, 2006

The ENIAC, the first practical, all-electronic computer, unveiled on Feb. 14, 1946, was the watershed project that showed electronic computing was possible, using 18,000 vacuum tubes and programmed by plugging wires in from place to place.

Its first use was by Edward Teller in doing calculations for the hydrogen bomb.

Engineering nerve jumper cables for spinal cord repair

February 17, 2006

Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine have created a new way to engineer nerve structures, or constructs, in culture. This proof-of-principle research has implications for eventually becoming a new method to repair spinal cord injury in humans.

Previously, they showed that they could grow axons by placing neurons from rat dorsal root ganglia on nutrient-filled plastic plates. Axons sprouted from the neurons on each plate and… read more

Speed thrills with neural networks

February 17, 2006

Software and hardware-based neural network-based techniques are being successfully applied to engine control and diagnostics in automotive embedded systems.

Taking them further, Steve Furber, ICL Professor of Computer Engineering at Manchester University, is planning to model various ways in which neurons may express information in their patterns of spikes, based on the assumption that populations of neurons producing firing patterns have a very high information capacity, based on the… read more

The Opposite of Doping

February 17, 2006

By measuring hormone and other chemical levels before, during and after tough workouts, trainers can precisely tailor an athlete’s regimen.

Scientists at HortResearch in New Zealand are developing a non-invasive and painless method of doing that. Some trainers are already using Hort’s technology by measuring testosterone, cortisol and creatin kinase.

The ultimate goal is to create a portable, non-invasive, ultrasound testing device that can test athletes in real… read more

Evanescent wave litho to surface at SPIE

February 17, 2006

The Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) is expected to present a paper that claims it has produced a 26-nm image based on evanescent wave lithography (EWL).

This, in turn, opens EWL as an extension to conventional projection lithography as a means for sub-32-nm chip production, according to RIT.

How ‘hot’ emotional brain interferes with ‘cool’ processing

February 16, 2006

For the first time, researchers have seen in action how the “hot” emotional centers of the brain can interfere with “cool” cognitive processes such as those involved in memory tasks.

The Duke University Medical Center researchers’ functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) images of human volunteers exposed to emotional distraction revealed a “see-saw” effect, in which activation of emotional centers damped activity in the “executive” centers responsible for such processing.… read more

Science Academy Creating Panel to Monitor Stem-Cell Research

February 16, 2006

To fill a void in federal supervision, the National Academy of Sciences is setting up a committee to provide informal oversight over research with human embryonic stem cells.

Space-elevator tether climbs a mile high

February 16, 2006

LiftPort Group has built a cable for a space elevator stretching a mile into the sky and tethered on balloons, enabling robots to scrabble some way up and down the line.

To make the cable, researchers sandwiched three carbon-fiber composite strings between four sheets of fiberglass tape, creating a mile-long cable about 5 centimeters wide and no thicker than about six sheets of paper.

The aim is to… read more

Big Brain Thinking

February 15, 2006

Stanford neuroscientist Bill Newsome wants to implant an electrode in his brain to better understand the link between activity in specific parts of the brain and consciousness.

If approved, he would insert an electrode in an area of the brain known as MT. The cells in this area respond selectively to a specific direction of motion, as in monkey experiments he has done.

“If I could stimulate my… read more

Nanotubes break superconducting record

February 15, 2006

Physicists in Japan have shown that “entirely end-bonded” multi-walled carbon nanotubes can superconduct at temperatures as high as 12 K, which is 30 times greater than for single-walled carbon nanotubes.

The superconducting nanotubes could be used to study fundamental 1D quantum effects and also find practical applications in molecular quantum computing.

New Microchips Shun Transistors

February 15, 2006

Researchers have created a working prototype of a radical new chip design using arrays of separate magnetic domains, instead of transistors, to achieve higher device density and processing power.

Computers using the magnetic chips would boot up almost instantly. The magnetic chip’s memory is nonvolatile, making it impervious to power interruptions, and it retains its data when the device is switched off.

The magnetic architecture of the chip… read more

UK stem cell scientists to recruit egg donors

February 15, 2006

Women in the UK will be allowed to donate their eggs solely for stem cell cloning experiments to find new ways of treating degenerative diseases.

The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority proposed the change to help research into therapeutic cloning and address a shortage of donor eggs.

Viper vision

February 15, 2006

A new invention uses an ordinary digital-camera light sensor to capture a scene. An array of infrared LEDs then transforms this image into a pattern of heat points that can be projected onto a user’s forehead.

The human forehead is very sensitive to temperature change, so users may be able to “see” a coarse image in their mind. The technique could also be used to relay Braille messages.

Biotech’s Sparse Harvest

February 14, 2006

The next generation of biotech crops — the first with direct benefits for consumers — is finally on the horizon. But the list does not include many of the products once envisioned.

Developing such crops has proved to be far from easy. Resistance to genetically modified foods, technical difficulties, legal and business obstacles, and the ability to develop improved foods without genetic engineering have winnowed the pipeline.

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