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Why Diving Marine Mammals Resist Brain Damage From Low Oxygen

December 20, 2007

UCSC researchers have investigated how certain animals are protected from hypoxia by elevated levels of globins–oxygen-carrying proteins–in their brains.

The results suggest that some species have evolved the capacity to protect their brains from hypoxia. It’s not yet clear whether animals of a particular species are born with high amounts of brain globins, or whether their behavior and environment stimulate the production of globins. But in either case, the… read more

Why disorder can improve the performance of plastic solar cells

August 6, 2013

These X-ray images reveal the microscopic structure of two semiconducting plastic polymers. The bottom image, with several big crystals stacked in a row, is from a highly ordered polymer sample. The top image shows a disordered polymer with numerous tiny crystals that are barely discernible. (Credit: Jonathan Rivnay,Stanford and Michael Toney, SSRL/SLAC)

Scientists have spent decades trying to build flexible plastic solar cells efficient enough to compete with conventional cells made of silicon.

To boost performance, research groups have tried creating new plastic materials that enhance the flow of electricity through the solar cell.

Several groups expected to achieve good results by redesigning pliant polymers of plastic into orderly, silicon-like crystals, but the flow of electricity did not improve.… read more

Why diets don’t work: starved brain cells eat themselves

August 4, 2011

When we don’t eat, hunger-inducing neurons in the brain’s hypothalamus start eating bits of themselves (autophagy), sending a hunger signal to prompt eating, researchers at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine have found in experiments with mice.

They said the new findings suggest that treatments aimed at blocking autophagy may prove useful as hunger-fighting weapons in the war against obesity.

New evidence shows that… read more

Why Did Honda Build a Humanoid Robot That Meets With the Vatican’s Approval?

September 4, 2001

The Vatican has assured Honda Motors that the Church won’t complain about its two-legged four-foot robot named Asimo, which can walk, dance, shake hands and speak, but has no brain (AI functions).

So what else can it do? Honda plans to rent the robot as a guide in museums or to perform at weddings, and robots may someday sweep landmines, serve as seeing-eye dogs or work in nuclear-power plants.… read more

Why Computers Can’t Kill Post-Its

January 23, 2009

MIT researchers argue that computers need to become as easy to use as Post-it notes, and have developed a Firefox browser add-on called List-it that attempts to achieve the ease of use of Post-it notes.

We’re giving List-it a test here at – Ed.

Why computers are like the weather

July 12, 2005

The behavior of the complex microchips that drive modern computers is inherently unpredictable and chaotic, researchers at the National Research Institute for Information and Automation in Orsay, France have found.

Why compressive sensing will change the world

March 17, 2009

A new Rice University-developed technicque for sampling signals produces 5-megapixel 2D images compressed into 50KB JPEG images using a single pixel — the image is reflected off a randomized array of micromirrors before being focused onto the single pixel.

Why complex life probably evolved only once

October 22, 2010

The universe may be teeming with simple cells like bacteria, but more complex life is probably very rare. Whenever simple cells start to become more complex, they run into problems generating enough energy, say Nick Lane of University College London and Bill Martin of the University of Dusseldorf.

Why China is poised to streak ahead of the West

May 30, 2005

China’s doing things the rest of us don’t even know about, and unless we change quickly they will streak past us, futurist Frank Ogden, aka Dr. Tomorrow, says.

“They are speeding ahead in so many areas because they have the ability to get big things done very quickly. They’re very smart, they think differently from us, and they have no restrictions on anything.

We also have to learn… read more

Why children watch multi-screens

August 4, 2011

Researchers at the University of Bristol and Loughborough University have examined the relationship children have with electronic viewing devices and their habits of interacting with more than one at a time.

Questioning 10–11 year olds, the researchers found that the children enjoyed looking at more than one screen at a time. They used a second device to fill in breaks during their entertainment, often… read more

Why carbon-nanotube fibers make ideal implantable brain electrodes

March 26, 2015

Pairs of carbon nanotube fibers have been tested for potential use as implantable electrodes to treat patients with neurological disorders like Parkinson's disease. The fibers invented at Rice University proved to be far better than metallic wires now used to stimulate neurons in the brain. (Credit: the Pasquali Lab)

Rice University scientists have found that the carbon nanotube fibers they developed for aerospace are superior to metal and plain-carbon electrodes for deep brain stimulation for neurological disorders such as Parkinson’s and for brain-machine interfaces to neural circuits in the brain.

The individual nanotubes measure only a few nanometers across, but when millions are bundled in a process called wet spinning, they become thread-like fibers about a… read more

Why cancer rate increases with age (not mutations)

July 3, 2012

(Credit: iStockphoto)

It is the changing features of tissue in old age that promote higher cancer rates in the elderly, not the accumulation of cancer-causing mutations, concludes a University of Colorado Cancer Center review.

“If you look at Mick Jagger in 1960 compared to Mick Jagger today, it’s obvious that his tissue landscape has changed,” says James DeGregori, PhD, investigator at the University of Colorado Cancer Center and… read more

Why Athletes Are Geniuses

May 12, 2010

Neuroscientists have begun to catalog some fascinating differences between average brains and the brains of great athletes, who need to make complicated decisions in a flash.

The qualities that set a great athlete apart from the rest of us is that they learn how to make sense of a new situation sooner and are able to rewire their brains according to certain rules. As neuroscientists decipher those rules, they… read more

Why artificial general intelligence has failed and how to fix it

October 4, 2012

(Credit: iStockphoto)

The field of “artificial general intelligence” or AGI has made no progress whatever during the entire six decades of its existence, says Oxford University physicist David Deutsch in this abridged version of an essay in aeon magazine. — Ed.

It is uncontroversial that the human brain has capabilities that are, in some respects, far superior to those of all other known objects in the cosmos. It is the… read more

Why AI is a dangerous dream

September 1, 2009

AI is a dangerous myth that could lead to a dystopian future of unintelligent, unfeeling robot carers and soldiers, but there is no evidence that machines will ever overtake us or gain sentience, says Noel Sharkey, professor of artificial intelligence and robotics at the University of Sheffield.

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