Scientists at the Jackson Laboratory have developed a genetically diverse panel of mice bred to match the genetic makeup of most human genetic profiles to help predict how people with specific genotypes will respond to experimental drugs.
An ambitious goal to describe 10 million species in less than 50 years is achievable and necessary to sustain Earth’s biodiversity, according to an international group of 39 scientists, scholars and engineers who provided a detailed plan, including measures to build public support.
“Earth’s biosphere has proven to be a vast frontier that, even after centuries of exploration, remains largely uncharted,” wrote the authors, who include biodiversity crusaders Edward… read more
September 19, 2006
Our ability to empathise with others seems to depend on the action of “mirror neurons” in the brain, according to a new study of neurons in humans that fire when sounds are heard.
In other words, if you hear the noise of someone eating an apple, some of the same neurons fire as when you eat the apple yourself.
September 6, 2001
The promise of ubiquitous wireless Internet access is on hold as TV broadcasters, the military, telecom companies and others secretly squabble over scarce spectrum space. Congress wants to auction off some of the prime spectrum used by the Pentagon. The Pentagon wants to take broadcasters’ HDTV spectrum, while broadcasters want to auction it off and use the money for developing digital television.
The public knows little about this; even… read more
September 15, 2004
IBM announced it will contribute some of its speech-recognition software to two open-source software groups.
After decades of research and development, speech recognition is moving toward mainstream use. Advances in statistical modeling, pattern-matching algorithms and processing power have enabled speech recognition to interpret a far broader vocabulary of words and phrases than in the past, though glitches remain.
The software for speech-recognition applications once had to be custom… read more
August 16, 2002
Speech recognition software is stymied by word combinations that sound alike (homophones), says columnist David Pogue.
September 14, 2004
Carnegie Mellon University and University of California and Berkeley researchers have received a $1 million grant from the National Science Foundation to move automatic speech recognition from software into hardware.
The goal is to create a radically new silicon chip architecture that does speech recognition up to 1,000 times more efficiently than a conventional computer and that can be incorporated in portable devices like cell phones and PDAs.… read more
August 6, 2010
Great strides have been made in both voice recognition and natural language processing over the past few decades, but they have seemingly brought mostly frustration to their users. Two elements are missing from the modern systems: The ability to analyze what the speaker is saying and the ability to converse with the speaker to learn more about what the speaker intends to say.
Researchers at the University of Rochester… read more
August 31, 2015
An automated speech analysis program correctly differentiated between at-risk young people who developed psychosis over a later two-and-a-half year period and those who did not.
In a proof-of-principle study, researchers at Columbia University Medical Center, New York State Psychiatric Institute, and the IBM T. J. Watson Research Center found that the computerized analysis provided a more accurate classification than clinical ratings. The study was… read more
July 8, 2011
Foxp2, a gene involved in speech and language, helps regulate the wiring of neurons in the brain, researchers at the The Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford have determined.
Foxp2 codes for a regulatory protein that provides a window into unusual aspects of brain function. In 2001, scientists discovered that mutations of the human gene cause a rare form of speech… read more
November 3, 2009
University of Pennsylvania researchers have developed a theoretical model that provides quantitative predictions for the speed of evolution on various “fitness landscapes,” the dynamic and varied conditions under which bacteria, viruses and even humans adapt.
A major conclusion of the work is that for some organisms, possibly including humans, continued evolution will not translate into ever-increasing fitness.
July 6, 2011
Two studies featuring research from Weill Cornell Medical College have uncovered details have uncovered surprising details about the complex process that leads to the flow of neurotransmitters between brain neurons — a dance of chemical messages so delicate that missteps often lead to neurological dysfunctions, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia and other neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders.
Speed of vesicle recovery
The first study… read more
September 16, 2002
Electric signals can be transmitted at least four times faster than the speed of light using only basic equipment, Tennessee State University physicists have discovered.
However, signals also get weaker and more distorted the faster they go, so in theory no useful information can get transmitted at faster-than-light speeds.